Data on Finnish Elections
In Finland, parliamentary elections are held every four years, presidential elections every six years, municipal elections (local government elections) every four years, and European Parliamentary elections every five years. The president is elected by popular vote. Members of the unicameral parliament are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis. The proportional representation system encourages a multitude of political parties, and coalition governments tend to be the norm.
This web page gives information about the most important datasets on elections archived at FSD. It is worthwhile to browse through our data catalogue as well. Many election datasets have been translated into English and have codebooks containing variable level information. More datasets are translated on request.
In addition to the data presented below, FSD collections include other survey series containing information on elections, democracy, social attitudes, and political participation. See, for example, EVA Surveys on Finnish Values and Attitudes, World Values Survey (WVS), International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), and European Social Survey (ESS).
» Finnish National Election studies are nationally representative surveys conducted in connection with parliamentary elections in Finland. Data have been collected by the Election Study Consortium from 2003 onwards.
» Finnish National Election studies are collected after public elections, using the computerised GallupChannel Data Collection System. The surveys, led by Tom Moring and Juhani Pehkonen, have studied voting behaviour, political party and candidate choice and the influence of different factors on people's voting decisions.
» FSD2675 Election Funding of Finnish MPs 2011, FSD2412 Election Funding of Finnish MPs 2007 and FSD1360 Election Funding of Finnish MPs 2003 provide information on the campaign financing and costs of the elected Members of Parliament and appointed Deputy Members.
» FSD2673 Finnish National Election Study 2011: Telephone Interviews among Finnish-speaking Voters and FSD2726 Finnish National Election Study 2011: Telephone Interviews among Swedish-speaking Voters charted the political views of eligible voters in the 2011 Finnish parliamentary elections.
» FSD2431 Parliamentary Elections 2007: Swedish-speaking Finns and FSD2069 Parliamentary Elections 2003: Swedish-speaking Finns focused on the voting behaviour of Finland's Swedish-speaking minority.
» FSD2275 Voting and Party Choice in Parliamentary Elections 2007 focused on voting and candidate selection.
» FSD2507 Finnish Candidate Survey 2007 charted parliamentary elections from the point of view of the candidates, and is part part of the international Comparative Candidates Survey (CCS).
» In the FSD2263 Parliamentary Elections 2007 : Small Constituencies survey, residents in small Finnish constituencies (Southern Savonia, North Karelia, and Lapland) were interviewed after the 2007 parliamentary elections. The same set of questions was also used in the face-to-face interview survey FSD2269 Finnish National Election Study 2007.
» FSD2316 Electoral Alliances in Parliamentary Elections 1945-2007 contains information on the electoral alliances in Finnish parliamentary elections formed between two or more parties, sorted by constituencies. The data were collected from the Statistics Finland's parliamentary election data.
» FSD2261 Youth and Parliamentary Elections 2007, FSD1027 Youth and Parliamentary Elections 1999 and FSD1247 Youth and Parliamentary Elections 2003 studied the voting behaviour of 18-30-year-old Finns.
» FSD2237 Finnish Local Government Barometer 2006 : Municipal Managers and FSD2238 Finnish Local Government Barometer 2006 : Inhabitants canvassed the characteristics of parliamentary candidates and political parties with relation to the upcoming 2007 parliamentary elections.
» The pre-election survey FSD1265 Themes of the 2003 Parliamentary Elections studied what were the most important issues in the elections from the citizens' point of view.
» Post-election surveys FSD1011 Finnish Voter Barometer 1983 and FSD1014 Finnish Voter Barometer 1987 contain a number of variables related to the elections. The data were collected with face-to-face interviews. Pre-election survey FSD1031 Finnish Voter Barometer February 1995 was collected using the GallupChannel.
» FSD2004 European Parliamentary Elections in All Member States 1979-2004 contains country-specific information on the elections in EU Member States. The data include the election year, number of elections and constituencies, electoral system, information on voting threshold and compulsory voting, voter turnout, total number of voters for each election, number of representatives, vote and seat share of parties, and European Parliamentary group membership of representatives.
» FSD2006 European Election Study 2004 : Finland was collected immediately after the European Parliamentary elections. Themes covered include elections and attitudes towards the EU. The data is Finland's contribution to the fourth data collection round of the European Election Study (ESS). FSD2003 Finnish European Parliament Election Survey 2004 focused on election campaigning, political advertising, and voting behaviour.
» Information on the 1999 European Parliamentary elections in Finland can be found in FSD1043 European Parliament Elections 1999, FSD1047 European Parliament Survey of the Finnish Broadcasting Corporation's TV-news 1999, and FSD1028 Young People and European Parliament Elections 1999.
» In 1996, combined municipal and European Parliamentary elections were held. Voting behaviour was charted in FSD1096 Follow-up on Municipal and Europarliamentary Elections 1996 and in FSD1032 Finnish Voter Barometer August-September 1996, whereas FSD2017 Young People's Political Participation and Social Exclusion 1996 studied how young people had voted.
» Eurobarometers regularly study voting behaviour in European Parliamentary elections, see for example FSD0061 Eurobarometer 12, October-November 1979, FSD0048 Eurobarometer 12, October-November 1979, FSD0089 Eurobarometer 52.0, October-November 1999, and FSD2035 Eurobarometer 61.0, February-March 2004. In addition, the longitudinal study FSD0095 The Mannheim Eurobarometer Trend File 1970-2002 includes variables related to European Parliamentary elections. More information on the Eurobarometers concerning European elections can be found on the German Central Archive's Eurobarometer site and European Election Studies site.
» Finnish Local Government Barometer surveys cover, among other issues,citizens' opinions on the characteristics of good municipal councillors, and councillor opinions on local democracy, local decision-making and themselves as councillors.
» The responses given by the 2008 municipal election candidates to YLE (Finland's national public service broadcasting company) candidate selector are archived at the FSD (FSD2396).
» FSD2110 Finnish Municipal Election Survey 2004 studied election campaigning, political advertising, and voting behaviour in the 2004 municipal elections.
» FSD1206 Finnish Local Government 2004 : Municipal Elections 1996 and FSD1207 Finnish Local Government 2004 : Inhabitants 1996 surveyed citizens' opinions. FSD1196 Finnish Local Government 2004 : Non-Governmental Organisations 1996 studied the attitudes and interests of various voluntary and civic organisations relating to the 1996 municipal election campaign. The Finnish Local Government 2004 research programme has also conducted similar surveys in 2000 and 2004.
» Voting behaviour in the 1996 combined municipal and European Parliamentary elections was surveyed in FSD1096 Follow-up on Municipal and Europarliamentary Elections 1996, FSD1032 Finnish Voter Barometer August-September 1996, and FSD2017 Young People's Political Participation and Social Exclusion 1996.
» FSD1024 Parties and Local Democracy 1996: Combined Dataset, as well as the separate datasets FSD1021 (candidates), FSD1022 (party members) and FSD1023 (electors) allow comparison between voters, candidates and municipal councillors.
» Election funding of the candidates in the 2012 presidential elections in Finland was charted in FSD2723 Election Funding of Finnish Presidential Candidates 2012.
» FSD2122 Finnish 2006 Presidential Election Survey : Candidate Choice and Profiles, collected just before the 2006 presidential elections, studied to what extent candidate goals and personal characteristics influence voters' choice of candidate. Candidate profiles were also studied. FFSD2131 Presidential Elections 2006 and Democracy Indicators studied voting decision and candidate choice. The survey was conducted as a telephone interview after the first round of the 2006 presidential elections. Candidate responses to HS, MTV3 and YLE candidate selectors are also available (FFSD2126, FFSD2127, and FFSD2128).
» Some variables in FSD2217 Finnish Youth Survey 2006 probed young people's voting habits in presidential elections.
» Voting decision and candidate choice was studied in FSD1040 Presidential Elections 2000, First Round and FSD1041 Presidential Elections 2000, Second Round. Similar surveys were also conducted in 2006: FSD2137 Presidential Elections 2006, First Round and FSD2138 Presidential Elections 2006, Second Round. FSD1048 Young People and Presidential Elections 2000 surveyed young people's interest in politics, and their views on the presidential elections.
» Views on opinion polls, their publication and impact were surveyed in post-election studies FSD1019 Polling in Finnish Presidential Elections 1994, Part 1, FSD1020 Polling in Finnish Presidential Elections 1994, Part 2, and FSD1197 Polling in Finnish Presidential Elections 2000.
» There are many questions related to the 1988 presidential elections in FSD1015 Finnish Voter Barometer 1988.
» Finnish EU Attitudes surveys conducted in the European Parliamentary election years contain variables related to the elections.
» Finnish Voter Barometers include variables related to municipal elections.
» FSD2276 Finnish Voter Barometers 1973 - 1990 : Combined Data and FSD2274 Finnish Voter Barometers 1992 - 2005 : Combined Data contain variables related to parliamentary, European Parliamentary, municipal and presidential elections.
The surveys listed on this page are only a small sample of all data related to elections archived at the FSD. It is therefore worthwhile to search the FSD's data catalogue, also by keywords. See also the search instructions.
» Finnish Election Study Portal provides information on elections, citizens' political participation and political attitudes in Finland.
» Elections website of the Ministry of Justice Finland provides information on Finnish elections, referendums, and political parties.
» Elections website of the Statistics Finland contains information on the results of elections, persons entitled to vote, voting, candidates, and who was elected.
» Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) allows cross-national comparisons, as the participating countries include the same module of questions in their post-elections surveys.
» Parties & Elections is a German database including information on parliamentary elections in European countries since 1945.
» Elections web page of the Swedish National Data Service (SND) contains information on Swedish election data and links to other information, and data on elections in Sweden and elsewhere in the world.
» European Election Database, published by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services (NSD), contains regional election results in Europe according to NUTS levels 1-3.
» International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) website contains a global collection of voter turnout statistics.
» International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) is an international non-profit organisation dedicated to building democratic societies. It provides original research and publications, e.g. surveys measuring aspects of democratic change.