FSD1357 Attitudes to Economy and Social Security 1994Detailed description (collection | citation | publications)
Ervasti, Heikki (University of Turku. Department of Social Policy)
Kangas, Olli (University of Turku. Department of Social Policy)
Keywords: economic policy, industrial disputes, pensions, private sector, public sector, social change, social inequality, social security benefits, social status, taxation, trade unions, wages, working time
The survey studied Finnish economic policy, perceptions of the public and private sectors, working conditions, social class, and fairness of wages, income distribution and taxation. Respondents were asked to evaluate services and merchandise provided by the private sector and the public sector. Respondents compared the strengths and weaknesses of both sectors as employers and service providers. Opinions on the relations between the state and the economy were charted with a set of questions pertaining to production subsidies, import restrictions, import taxes, rates of duty, and government measures to support employment and production. Views on minimum wage, government ownership of industry, and the role of the state in different branches of industry were investigated. Further questions pertained to trade unions, employers, wage disputes (labour disputes), and collective agreements vs. local bargaining.
Respondents were asked what kind of a wage they thought certain occupational groups earned and how much they should earn. Views on income inequality and possible conflicts between social classes were probed. Respondents assessed Finland's social class structure, and evaluated the impact of post-war changes in the Finnish society.
One theme covered the respondent's economic activity. Employees were asked about their working hours, working weeks during the past 12 months, working experience on the whole, employer type, unemployment, occupation, occupational status, size of workforce, and employment sector (public/private). Self-employed and entrepreneurs were asked about the turnover and size of the business. Respondents were asked how easy it would be to find a similar job in private or public sector and which sector would they prefer. Willingness to start a business was charted.
Characteristics of the respondent's job (e.g. working conditions, job security, required skills and qualifications) were charted, likewise satisfaction with various aspects of the job. Respondents were asked whether they felt they earned a fair wage, taking into account demands of their job, amount of responsibility, education etc., and how much a fair wage would be. Views on what kind of wage people with certain education level should earn were surveyed.
Some questions covered ownership of consumer durables, shares, real estate and vehicles. Satisfaction with living standard, marriage, children and job, and general satisfaction with life were charted. Respondents indicated in which social stratum they feel they belong to.
Further topics included views on just taxation, actual taxation, and views on certain social security benefits. A number of questions pertained to pensions policy. Respondents were asked who should take care of elderly people and three-year-old children.
Background variables included respondent's gender, age, place of residence, basic and vocational education, marital status, household composition, perceived social class, political party preference and attitude to different political parties. Other background variables included father's occupation, employer, and supervisory status, and parents' education. Spouse's education, occupation, employment sector, and supervisory status were also included.